Critical Reproductiveand Sexual Health Problems Faced by Men

Male Inferitility


What is infertility?
Infertility is the inability of a sexually active couple, not using any birth control, to get pregnant after one year of trying. Problems in the male partner affect about 40 percent of infertile couples. Male infertility refers to a male's inability to cause pregnancy in a fertile female. In humans it accounts for 40–50% of infertility. It affects approximately 7% of all men. Male infertility is commonly due to deficiencies in the semen, and semen quality is used as a surrogate measure of male fecundity.
Primary Infertility: Couples who have not become pregnant after at least 1 year having sex without using birth control methods.
Secondary infertility: Couples who have been able to get pregnant at least once, but now is unable.

What causes male infertility?
In about 30 to 40 percent of cases, the problem is in the Testes, the glands that produce sperm and testosterone (the main male sex hormone). Damage to the testes can result from infections such as mumps, treatments for cancer such as radiation or chemotherapy, trauma, or surgery.
Heat can affect sperm production. Heat damage may occur if one or both testes fail to descend from near the stomach (where they are located before birth) into the scrotum (the sac of skin that normally holds the testes). Many men have enlarged veins around the testes (known as varicocele) that may also raise the temperature in the testes. If they are very large, varicocele may cause low sperm production.
Certain inherited (genetic) diseases can cause low or no sperm production or sperm that have decreased mobility.
In 10 to 20 percent of cases, the problem is a blockage in the sperm’s path from the testes, through tubes called the vas deferens to the penis. This can be caused by scarring from an infection, a vasectomy (surgery to cut the vas deferens and prevent passage of sperm), or cystic fibrosis (a genetic disease). Backward movement of sperm into the bladder, instead of out through the penis, can also cause infertility.
Rarely, infertility results from a hormone deficiency. Luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) cause the testes to produce testosterone and sperm. The pituitary gland, located in the brain, makes these hormones. Any condition that lowers LH and FSH levels, such as a pituitary tumor, can result in low or no sperm production and low blood testosterone levels.
In 30 to 40 percent of men with infertility, the cause cannot be found. But, these men usually have abnormal sperm (for instance, sperm that are slow moving, abnormal in shape, or low in number).
Other problems may decrease sperm production and fertility. They include chronic (long-term) illness, poor overall health, obesity, certain prescription drugs, and drug abuse.


Low-sperm count:

For male it just be in low sperm count low sperm motility just resulting from development but it also result from impotence it can result from some kind of cancer where they’ve had treatments.


Diabetes:

Diabetes has long been thought of as a precursor to male infertility but is it really so bustled expounds. According to the World Health Organization, 347 million people worldwide have diabetes is known to adversely affect some organs and systems in the body these include ill effects on your blood vessels and nerves leading to major health issues.
These health complications caused due to long term diabetes are known by the inclusive term diabetic complications, however the effects of diabetes on fertility have not been studied as extensively as the others. It was thought to have an adverse effect for years but no study had made any refutable claim either way the situation remains largely unchanged even today.
Diabetes is known to affect the female reproductive system but its effects on male fertility are still not conclusively established no large-scale studies have been done on diabetic men .One major study concluded that diabetes can indeed affect male fertility .Diabetic complications can affect themale reproductive system albeitindirectly here's how nerve damagediabetes both type 1 and type 2.
Diabetes primarily damages blood vessels bydecreasing their internal circumference and thus constricting blood flow this is mainly linked to high blood pressure and cardiac issues because the heart has to pump blood more forcefully so that itcan travel through the narrowed bloodvessels but it also affects nerveendings in various areas of the body dueto the reduced and abnormal blood supplyamong others it affects the nervespresent in the penile region.
This itself can cause erectile dysfunction problems and can lead to infertility furthermore. The man still won't be able to impregnate a woman sperm DNA damage the afore mentioned study about diabetic male patients was conducted with 27 men who were suffering from typeI diabetes which occurs naturally as anautoimmune disorder and 29 male patientswho were undergoing infertility treatment no patient was known to beboth diabetic and infertile.
This study conducted by researchers based in Belfast found that both groups had similar levels of sperm count and motility the diabetic men had slightly lower semen volumes but they were still within the healthy to acceptable limits accepted by the WHO.
The disparity was revealed when the researchers examined the semen for signs of sperm DNA damage they found that the semen samples from the diabetic group had much more sperm DNA damage than the group undergoing infertility treatments.
The female egg is capable of repairing some amount of damage to the sperm but the DNA damage seen in the diabetic group was beyond that. Though not all sperms were damaged in the samples from diabetic men it was a clear sign of a damagedreproductive system and can lead toinfertility semen from men who are neither diabetic nor undergoing infertility treatment is likely to contain drastically healthier sperms.
This test showed that diabetes could belinked to male infertility indirectly but more wide-ranging research is necessary before the results can be proclaimed as a fact whatever the outcome of the research it is clear that diabetes does indeed have an adverse effect on male fertility the extent of that though is still unclear.


Hormonal Imbalance

Infertility is oftentimes the result of hormone imbalances. Millions of women worldwide suffer from hormonal imbalances in estrogen, insulin, cortisol and adrenaline. These hormonal fluctuations arrive via the typical culprits: Poor gut health.

  • Thyroid hormones
  • Prolactin
  • Anti-Mullerian Hormone(AMH)
  • Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
  • Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
  • Progesterone

Smoking:

So the effects of smoking cigarettes, cigars or a pipeon sperm production is really more complicated than people at first might think.
There's not a lot of evidence to suggest that by smoking you reduce the number of sperm that are produced by a man.It seems to be that most of the studies suggest that sperm production continues at a similar rate than what we see in non-smokers.
So when we look down the microscope at the semenof men who smoked, at first glance we don't seeany difference in comparison to non-smokers.The sperm also seem to swim just as well.And they also have size and shape that's also very similarto that of non-smokers.
But if we make more detailed observations of the DNA,the genetic component of the sperm and that's what spermare built for to carry the man's DNA to the eggto create a new life when we look at the DNA qualityof smokers it really is less healthy than non-smokers.
The DNA is more likely to be chopped, damagedor disorganized.And the influence of that we'll be more likely to increasethe risk of miscarriage or potentially increase the riskof not getting pregnant at all becausethe sperm DNA isn't working correctly.
So the advice to smokers really is that you should stop smoking if you're trying to conceive.Because we know it takes three months to produce the spermyou should stop for a long extended period of timeand allow all those toxins to get out of your bodyand allow for new healthy sperm to be produced.
Thus you should probablystop in the long term because if you are successfuland you have a child then smoking around children is not something that we would recommend.

Efffect of infertility in one's life:
  • Infertility affects mental health. Infertility has a profound impact on man's mental health and on the person as a whole. Physical, emotional, sexual, spiritual, and financial aspects of one's life are all affected by this disease of the reproductive system.
  • Infertility can also affect a person's sexual self-esteem, desire, and performance. Most of the people think that infertility is a women’s problem. In U.S and japan millions of people are suffering for this thing.

Erectile Dysfunction


What is Erectile Dysfunction?
Erectile dysfunction (ED), also known as impotence, is a type of sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis during sexual activity.
ED is characterized by the regular or repeated inability to achieve or maintain an erection of sufficient rigidity to accomplish sexual activity. It is defined as the "persistent or recurrent inability to achieve and maintain a penile erection of sufficient rigidity to permit satisfactory sexual activity for at least 3 months."

Effect of Erectile Dysfunction on one's life?
Erectile dysfunction is not a life-threatening condition, but it can have a serious impact on a man’s sense of wellbeing, relationships, and quality of life. Sexual dysfunction(including erectile dysfunction) is a major cause of relationship breakdown and stress, and can negatively affect a man’s self-esteem. In addition, a man’s erectile function adversely affects his partner’s sexual function. Erectile dysfunction is also associated with many systemic health conditions (health conditions which affect the whole body or other body systems). Systemic health conditions affect a man’s physical health, can impact negatively on the treatment of erectile dysfunction and, in some cases, are life-threatening.
It can also cause psychological problems, such as anxiety and low self-esteem.
Although ED does not cause physical health problems, it can cause problems in relationships, such as:

  1. Unhappiness with your sex life.
  2. problems getting your partner pregnant
  3. other marital or relationship difficulties
Ejaculatory Problems


What is Ejaculatory Disorder?
Ejaculation disorder is a broader classification which covers 60% of the problems that falls under sexual disorder.
Common ejaculation disorder includes:

  • Premature Ejaculation:

    Premature ejaculation occurs when a man ejaculates sooner during sexual intercourse than he or his partner would like. Premature ejaculation is a common sexual complaint. Estimates vary, but as many as 1 out of 3 men say they experience this problem at some time.

  • Retarded Ejaculation:

    It affects a much smaller number of men - as few as 3%, according to NHSLS. It is the least common of the ejaculation problems. It causes semen to back into the bladder during orgasm instead of exiting by way of the penis. The semen is then later flushed out when you urinate.

  • Retrograde Ejaculation:

    It can be caused by diabetes, nerve damage, various medications, and surgery that disturbs the sphincter muscle. It's harmless and won't interfere with the feeling of orgasm. (It can also make for an easy post-sex clean-up.) But since it does affect fertility, some men may need treatment if their partners are trying to get pregnant.

Penis Size


What is Micropenis?
Micropenis refers to an abnormally small penis. It's rare and is caused usually due to hormonal or genetic issues. Doctors usually diagnose and treat the condition at birth. Doctors diagnose micropenis when a person's penis is 2.5 standard deviations below the average stretched length for their age and level of sexual development.
Research has estimated that the average penis size for an adult is 13.24 centimeters (cm) or 5.21 inches when stretched. For adults, doctors consider micropenis for a stretched penile length of less than 9.3 cm or 3.66 inches. When a person has micropenis, their internal genitalia and testicles are usually normal.

What is the cause of micropenis
Hormonal issues are the most common cause of micropenis. Less commonly, micropenis and other birth abnormalities can occur when the mother experiences exposure to pesticides or other toxic chemicals during pregnancy.
Testosterone deficiencies, during pregnancy, are usually the cause of micropenis and may also cause other genital abnormalities. A testosterone deficiency can arise when a male fetus does not produce enough testosterone, or when the mother does not produce enough human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) hormone during pregnancy. hCG stimulates testosterone development in the fetus.
When testosterone levels are normal, some medical conditions can stop a person's body from responding to testosterone correctly. This response is called Androgen insensitivity. When any of these hormonal issues arise, the penis of a male fetus may not develop in the usual way.
A male baby will experience a surge of testosterone around 0–3 months after birth. This is a crucial period for penile growth. If this process is interrupted by hormonal problems, a baby may have a smaller penis.
In rare cases, micropenis is idiopathic, which means that a doctor cannot find a specific cause, because hormone issues Some diagnoses that doctors may associate with micropenis include: hypogonadotropic hypogonadism Prader-Willi syndrome Kallmann syndrome growth hormone deficiencies abnormal chromosomes Laurence-Moon syndrome Sometimes what appears to be a micropenis is actually due to another problem.
For instance, a baby born with swelling in the scrotum may look like they have a micropenis. The penis may also be less visible because of large surrounding fat pads when it is called buried penis and can occur in people with obesity.

What is it's effect?
Most people with micropenis have normal sexual functioning. Micropenis does not affect a person's ability to urinate, masturbate, or orgasm. Some people may find it more difficult to urinate standing up. Anxiety about penis size can be a barrier to enjoying sex with a partner. Men may remain unsatisfied with their appearance even with treatment, though research shows that many men have normal sexual identities and functioning. Even so, people may benefit from counseling or sex therapy.
Sexual intercourse is just one of many ways to enjoy sex with a partner. If a person has difficulties with sexual intercourse, this does not have to be a barrier to sexual pleasure for men and their partners.
According to research from 2018, just 18.4 percent of women can orgasm with vaginal penetration alone Focusing on other sexual techniques, such as oral sex, may help a person feel more confident about sexual interactions, which can be a positive for both sexual partners.

Does size matter?
A particular concern for some men is whether their penis will be satisfying sexually for themselves and their partner. Some men may also be anxious about how they look naked.
When it comes to sexual intercourse, bigger may not always be better.In a study in the journal PLOS One(Highly respected journal, Expert written journal ,Peer reviewed journal) Trusted Source, researchers interviewed 75 sexually active women about the size of penis they would prefer for a one-night stand and for a long-term relationship.
The women were shown 33 different-sized 3-D penis models made out of blue plastic so as not to suggest a particular race.
The average size preferred by the women in the study was an erect penis that is 6.4 inches long and 5 inches in circumference for a one-time encounter.
For a long-term relationship, the average size preferred by the women was a penis that is 6.3 inches long with a circumference of 4.8 inches. Both of these choices were only slightly bigger than the average. Another similar study of women’s preferences, published in BMC Women’s Health Trusted Source, found that penis girth was more important to them than length for sexual satisfaction.
A man’s perception of his own penis size can have an impact on confidence and a positive body image. Men, who are self-conscious about the size of their penis, either in its flaccid or erect state, may experience anxiety-induced erectile dysfunction and other emotional problems. Therapists working with men who have this kind of self-consciousness often find that a person’s perception of “too small” doesn’t align with what research shows.
One study Trusted found that of 67 men who were concerned that their penis was too small, none were determined to have a penis considered short enough to recommend penile lengthening. Humans have long been obsessed with penis size and the questions of whether being down there really does make men more attractive to women or better in bed.
The answer of whether this assumption is fact or fiction is more complicated than it may first appear. Many studies show that confidence, good personality and attraction are the best predictors of sexual satisfaction for women. The smallest of the small penises, known as a micropenis, is 2.7 inches when erect, according to research. The number of men who have it is low but they do exist.

Masturbation & NightFall


Masturbation is self-stimulating your genitals in a sexual way to the point of reaching an orgasm. It is a very common behaviour among men and women and is a very normal part of growing up for children of both sexes. Experts and researchers in sexuality agree that masturbation is a completely normal process for human beings and is a healthy sexual behaviour. It probably has a bad reputation because it is an intensely private sexual behavior, which no one discusses even with the closest of friends.

What are the benefits of masturbation for men?
Masturbation is a part of healthy sex life and research reveals plenty of health benefits for men after masturbation, it is beneficial in the following ways: For men, masturbation may help prevent prostate cancer. Toxins build up naturally in the urogenital tract. Men who ejaculate over five times per week decrease these toxin levels. This significantly lowers their risk of prostate cancer. When men ejaculate, a little cortisol gets released, which is the stress hormone. This boosts their immune system. Masturbation can release stress and tension from the body by flooding the system with endorphins. Endorphins trigger a positive feeling in the body and can lead to sound sleep. With age men naturally lose muscle tone even in the penis. Masturbation or regular sex in a way exercises the pelvic floor muscles and prevent erectile dysfunction and incontinence. Masturbating releases feel-good neurochemicals like dopamine and oxytocin that lifts your spirits, boosts your satisfaction, and activates the reward circuits in your brain. It can enhance your relationship with your partner since you know yourself physically. When is masturbation not safe for men? Masturbation is generally safe. However, if it is done excessively and aggressively then it can be harmful. When you touch the genitals of an infected person and then touch yours you may suffer from Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs). STIs can also occur if you share your sex toys with an infected person. If you masturbate in a face-down position you tend to exert more pressure on the penis, and you may injure it. To avoid this you can masturbate while standing, sitting, or lying on the back. You should avoid squeezing the penis while ejaculating, to prevent the flow of semen. Else, this can damage the nerves and blood vessels in the penis, and will also force the semen into the urinary bladder. Can masturbation make you thin? Masturbation does not make you thin. However, excessive masturbation can make you lose a little weight, as technically, it is like any exercise you perform. Will a man’s testosterone level lower due to masturbation? No. Masturbating only has a modest effect on circulating testosterone as a research shows. However, again moderation is the key. Masturbating excessively will definitely lower testosterone levels. Can masturbation cause premature ejaculation? Excessive masturbation may cause damage to the nerves that allow for the ejaculation. This can cause premature ejaculation or even an ejaculation during sleep. Can masturbation affect your sperm count? Masturbation does not affect the number of sperms you produce, as sperms are continuously produced in the bodies of men. It does take time, however, after one ejaculation to ejaculate again. This is quite normal and in no way is an indication of your sperm count getting depleted.

Divorce


Sexual dissatisfaction can break marriages, 30% of all marriages in India end as a result of sexual dissatisfaction, impotency and infertility. (Shutterstock) Studies seem to throw light on how sexually deprived women in India are. As many as 72% of Indian women admitted that they were dissatisfied with their sex lives. On the contrary, a whopping 98% of the male respondents said that they were happy with their sex lives.
Many males in our country face premature ejaculation or erectile dysfunction, which leads to more women not being sexually happy. Men refuse to acknowledge these problems sometimes, because of the stigma attached to them. This attitude only further worsens the problem. Lack of cleanliness and alcohol and tobacco abuse, are also big turn-offs for women. These are minor, but important issues that men need to be careful about.
It’s hard to generalise, but at times, sexual dissatisfaction can lead to heightened levels of anxiety, low self-esteem and sense of self, body-image issues and the feeling of worthlessness.
Sex and relationship counsellors urge their patients to understand the significance of one’s “sexual health”. “It has always been important for women,”. In a country like ours(India), where certain pockets of society are still not comfortable talking about sex, it has never been easy for women to share their expectations in this regard. “A lack of conversation about sex doesn’t mean the need has never existed. Many couples still do not talk to each other openly about their pleasures, fantasies and boundaries, or about each other’s sexual health. Reclaiming one’s sexuality isn’t violating any social norm.
It is essential for women to become more aware of their sexual needs, as only that will lead to satisfaction. The indian court has seen an overall 13-15% annual rise in divorce cases; lawyers and psychiatrists agree that a major reason for the rise is women becoming more independent, financially and emotionally. In some cases Now a days Women didn't show the slightest hesitation in saying that she wanted divorce because she was sexually dissatisfied.
An increasingly high number of women are opting for divorce because their partners are unable to satisfy them sexually. Though this is not the only reason — incompatibility, physical and mental harassment are others — it is a major one for couples deciding to go their separate ways.
Asserting that a marriage without sex or satisfaction will be reduced into an “insipid” relation, the Delhi High Court has expressed concerns on the spurt in the divorce cases being filed by the urban couples owing to “sexual incompatibility and absence of sexual satisfaction.”
According to city psychiatrists, in the last three years, the number of women quoting sexual dissatisfaction as ground for divorce has doubled. Advocate Kranti Sathe gives the statistical backing to this, saying there has been an at least 10% annual rise in such cases. Dr Rajan Bhonsle, professor and head of the department of sexual medicine, KEM hospital says, "Sexual dissatisfaction is one of the prominent reasons for divorce initiated by women. They are very vocal about their feelings and needs these days."
Reportedly, sex is important for the health of the body. Admittedly, each person has different biological needs, and therefore different libidos. However, there are ways to make it work if there is a mismatch in the libidos in your marriage. As mentioned before, compromise is incredibly important in a marriage, so both partners can get as many of their needs met as possible.
Sexless Marriage: Sexless marriage is almost unanimously defined as having sex less than once a month. Maybe it should be called a low-sex marriage. According to the New York Times, about 15% of marriages are sexless.

Lack of Awareness


Indian society, a complex, multi-layered and at times, mystifying ecosystem, is a unique labyrinth of customs, traditions, innovations, wisdom and practices. The birthplace of some of the oldest civilizations and cultures, India has been a world heritage center in her own right. In spite of being a mature civilization, India also suffers from various superstitions and unscientific practices like many other less enlightened societies.
Few decades back, the topic of ‘male infertility’ was not only seldom talked about but almost non-existent. When a couple kept failing to conceive, the blame would automatically be put on the woman. In fact, it would be naturally assumed by the community that the women was at fault for not being able to get pregnant.
The solution? In majority of cases, the man would himself or be forced to move on with someone else for a ‘better future’. However, with increased awareness, people of all genders are coming forward to talk about this taboo of a topic. People are actually addressing the social stigma attached to male impotency and how instead of shaming the affected individuals, they should be encouraged to get diagnosed and treated at the earliest.
Additionally, as per an NCBI report, of all infertility cases, approximately 40% - 50% is due to “male factor” infertility, owing to the reproductive anomalies in the male. Therefore, it is imperative for individuals to be open about this topic in order to promote awareness and responsiveness on the same
Andrology, an area of medical science that deals with men's sexual and reproductive problems, has seldom received the attention or priority that it deserves. Problems related men's personal health do not get properly covered in the medical curriculum and haven't received any favor from the media either. People suffering from critical issues including erectile dysfunctions, infertility etc. hesitate to discuss their problems even within close circles due to the social stigma attached to these ailments.
Due to the lack of experts in this area, urologists and gynecologists mostly take care of andrological problems but that is not the best solution. Hence, it is hardly a surprise that illegal practitioners, fake andrologists and quack doctors have been using this situation to their advantage and exploiting helpless individuals.
This is a very serious health management problem across the country and is severely affecting people. A pan India crisis of this magnitude definitely requires a robust, reliable and deep tech solution that people can rely on.